Cigarette smoking is a worldwide public health challenge, Cigarette smoking is also a strong risk factor for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular disease, it is also well known that low and declining muscle strength is linked to increased smoking. Aims of this study was to examine the chronic effects of smoking on cardiovascular fitness in young and healthy male smokers . This study was carried out in university of hail, physiotherapy lab, 30male participant was recruited from university students of hail divided into two group 15 smoker (A),15 nonsmoker (B). All subjects underwent a sub maximal Bruce treadmill test and their HR was recorded during, at peak, and after termination of exercise. Our study revealed that the resting HR was 5.3 bpm higher in smoker than in nonsmoker (P:0.0001)., data indicated that there was a significant difference found between young smokers and non-smokers regarding their sub-maximal HR values (P:0.0063)., where smokers had significantly higher HR values. also there was no difference between both groups regarding to recovery heart rate (P:0.56). Smoking was found to affect young smokers’ increasing HR at rest, slowing of HR increase during exercise, and impairing their ability to reach the age predicted HRmax., Also smoking was associated with an attenuated HR. also Smokers had a higher resting HR and showed a higher HR response during sub-maximal exercise compared to Nonsmokers.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with the prevalence of 5 to 7% among Iranian women is a leading cause of infertility and endocrine disorder. Metabolic disorders such as increased levels of LH and FSH hormones in these patients was common and influences health of women with PCOS in long-term. Treatment of female infertility and other complications in many cases need to regulate hormones and receive exogenous hormone, and then the effect of female hormones on the disease is very important. In this study, levels of Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH) and other female hormones among Iranian women with PCOS and infertility and healthy people were measured in this regard and values were compared. The result of this study showed that LH and progesterone hormone levels were significantly different in this syndrome than healthy women
The study was done to evaluate the spectrum of various renal histopathological lesions in patients infected with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus).32 HIV positive patients underwent Renal biopsy over a period of 3 years from October 2013 to September 2016 who had presented with renal dysfunction and urine sediment abnormalities. Out of 32 patients, 24 were males and 8 were females. The mode of transmission of disease was sexual in 25 patients.14 patients presented with Nephrotic range proteinuria and 11 patients underwent RRT (renal replacement therapy). Majority of patients had tubulointerstitial lesions (18 patients) followed by glomerular lesions (14 patients).24 patients were receiving HAART (Highly active antiretroviral therapy) and majority of them had tubulointerstitial lesions. Hence Renal biopsy is indicated in HIV patients presenting with renal failure to arrive at proper diagnosis and treatment.